Public sector organizations are increasingly being challenged by more volatile and complex environments. Consequently, they must strive to be more innovative while adopting new forms of organization and more open interactions. The concept of open innovation (OI) offers enormous opportunities but also has major challenges. It requires careful consideration about when to open, to whom to open, and how to open for optimal results. Public sector managers need proper guidance to implement the new organizational forms. In this article, we present a knowledge mapping framework that may serve as a guide for planning open innovation initiatives. We describe the phases of the innovation cycle that must be specified and planned in every OI project and offer an overview of the different participants that may be involved in the OI process, based on the knowledge they can contribute. We conclude by discussing the advantages and limitations of prior OI projects and suggest some improvements based on our OI framework.
Open Innovation, Government, Innovation cycle, Knowledge mapping